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Conversions to do by hand to check understanding: You can confirm with Python. Pip Assembler vid As the beginning of the Hands-on Tutorial indicated, computer hardward does not execute Python directly.
Python and other high level langages must be converted to the very simple set of instructions that are directly built into the computer hardware, the machine language. This is the first place we look underneath high level languages.
As we will see more in the gates unit, the state inside a computer is usually electrical, and the most dependable system uses voltages, either high or 0 grounded. This means two possibilities.
This is a bit of information, the smallest possible amount. We will arbitrarily refer to the two states as 0 and 1.
This is convenient for the binary number system! Operations take place inside the CPU, with some data maybe transfered in from memory or sent back to memory and also external devices, though we will skip that part in our simple model. Like in a Python string or list, memory is referenced by integer locations, 0, 1, 2, There are several design decisions: Pip uses a byte, as do the common processors used in Windows machines and the latest Macs.
Another choice is how big to allow memory to be. A concept encouraged by Von Neumann in the 's was to encode the instructions as a form of data in the computer. Before this approach, changing the program in a computer involved physically rewiring the computer!
With Von Neumann's approach, an instruction would be represented as a number in the computer's memory. Hence an instructionmust be a sequence of 0's and 1's, like I introduce the space in the middle only to delineate individual bytes. Since accessing memory is slower than internal operations in the CPU, all CPU's have places for special data to be stored inside of them.
One is an Instruction Pointer IPsaying where in memory the next instruction starts. CPU's also have one or more fast temporary data storage locations, called registers. Pip Assembler Simulator vid For a simple conceptual view, look at the Pip Assembler simulator in the class web examples.
All files are included in pipFiles. Use a flash drive if you are on a lab computer! The zip archive contains the files needed for the Pip Assembler Simulator: The main program is pipGUI. Run it from the operating system. In Windows that generally just involves double clicking on it the file window.
No need to be in Idle - you will not be messing with the code. You will see a graphical Window. Look at the window as its various parts are described:PAPER PRODUCTS(Photocopy paper/Offset printing paper/Writing paper/Exercise book/Note book/ Paper bag or etc.): You are welcom to one of largest paper traders: When you order from us, you know you’re dealing with a reputable and reliable supplier – a paper.
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