History[ edit ] While the concept of an intelligence behind the natural order is ancient, a rational argument that concludes that we can know that the natural world has a designer, or a creating intelligence which has human-like purposes, appears to have begun with classical philosophy. Later, variants on the argument from design were produced in Western philosophy and by Christian fundamentalism. Anaxagoras is the first person who is definitely known to have explained such a concept using the word " nous " which is the original Greek term that leads to modern English "intelligence" via its Latin and French translations. Aristotle reports an earlier philosopher from Clazomenae named Hermotimus who had taken a similar position.
Much can be known about the coming forth of the English text of the Book of Mormon through a careful study of statements made by Joseph Smith, his scribes, and others closely associated with the translation of the Book of Mormon. The resulting English transcription, known as the Book of Lehi and referred to by Joseph Smith as written on pages, was subsequently lost or stolen.
As a result, Joseph Smith was rebuked by the Lord and lost the ability to translate for a short time. For example, it includes errors that suggest the scribe heard words incorrectly rather than misread words copied from another manuscript. Formal essay about god assist in the publication of the book, Oliver Cowdery made a handwritten copy of the original manuscript.
Because Joseph Smith did not call for punctuation, such as periods, commas, or question marks as he dictated, such marks are not in the original manuscript. The typesetter later inserted punctuation marks when he prepared the text for the printer.
For this monumental task, God prepared additional, practical help in the form of physical instruments. Joseph Smith and his scribes wrote of two instruments used in translating the Book of Mormon. According to witnesses of the translation, when Joseph looked into the instruments, the words of scripture appeared in English.
Although commentators differ on the nature of the instrument, several ancient sources state that the instrument involved stones that lit up or were divinely illumined.
Joseph Smith and others, however, seem to have understood the term more as a descriptive category of instruments for obtaining divine revelations and less as the name of a specific instrument. Some accounts indicate that Joseph studied the characters on the plates. According to these accounts, Joseph placed either the interpreters or the seer stone in a hat, pressed his face into the hat to block out extraneous light, and read aloud the English words that appeared on the instrument.
I am satisfied that no man could have dictated the writing of the manuscripts unless he was inspired; for, when acting as his scribe, your father would dictate to me for hour after hour; and when returning after meals, or after interruptions, he would at once begin where he had left off, without either seeing the manuscript or having any portion of it read to him.
Harris later related that as Joseph used the seer stone to translate, sentences appeared. That by looking through these, he was able to read in English, the reformed Egyptian characters, which were engraved on the plates.
The angel who brought news of an ancient record on metal plates buried in a hillside and the divine instruments prepared especially for Joseph Smith to translate were all part of what Joseph and his scribes viewed as the miracle of translation.
The truth of the Book of Mormon and its divine source can be known today. Joseph Smith Histories, —, vol. See also Joseph Smith—History 1: See also 1 Nephi 1: Joseph Smith History, —ca.
Joseph Smith History, ca.The teleological or physico-theological argument, also known as the argument from design, or intelligent design argument is an argument for the existence of God or, more generally, for an intelligent creator based on perceived evidence of deliberate design in the natural world..
The earliest recorded versions of this argument are associated with . Glossary of philosophical terms used in Hegel's Logic and commentaries by Marx, Engels and Lenin. An Essay in Aid of a Grammar of Assent (commonly abbreviated to the last three words) is John Henry Newman's seminal book on the philosophy of faith.
Completed in , Newman revealed to friends that it took him 20 years to write the book. Newman's aim was to show that the scientific standards for evidence and assent are too narrow and .
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