December 6, Accepted: January 21, Published: January 22, doi: A study focuses on the reasons that impact on their poor English performance.
No Child Left Behind encouraged the replacement of the principal in persistently low-performing schools, and the Obama administration has made this a requirement for schools undergoing federally funded turnarounds. Foundations have invested millions over the past decade in New Leaders for New Schools, an organization that recruits nontraditional principal candidates and prepares them for the challenges of school leadership.
And the recently launched George W. Bush Institute is making the principalship a focus of its activities. Yet until very recently there was little rigorous research demonstrating the importance of principal quality for student outcomes, much less the specific practices that cause some principals to be more successful than others.
As is often the case in education policy discussions, we have relied on anecdotes instead. Specifically, we measure how average gains in achievement, adjusted for individual student and school characteristics, differ across principals—both in different schools and in the same school at different points in time.
From this, we are able to determine how much effectiveness varies from one principal to the next. Our results indicate that highly effective principals raise the achievement of a typical student in their schools by between two and seven months of learning in a single school year; ineffective principals lower achievement by the same amount.
These impacts are somewhat smaller than those associated with having a highly effective teacher. But teachers have a direct impact on only those students in their classroom; differences in principal quality affect all students in a given school.
We also investigate one widely discussed mechanism through which principals affect student achievement: We confirm, however, that teachers who leave schools with the most-successful principals are much more likely to have been among the less-effective teachers in their school than teachers leaving schools run by less-successful principals.
The final component of our analysis considers the dynamics of the principal labor market, comparing the effectiveness of principals who move on to those who stay in their initial schools.
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Constrained by salary inertia and the historical absence of good performance measures, the principal labor market does not appear to weed out those principals who are least successful in raising student achievement.
This is especially true in schools serving disadvantaged students. This is troubling, as the demands of leading such schools, including the need to attract and retain high-quality teachers despite less desirable working conditions, may amplify the importance of having an effective leader.
Working with the Texas Education Agency TEAthis project has combined different data sources to create matched data sets of students, teachers, and principals over many school years. The data include all Texas publicschool teachers, administrators, staff, and students in each year, permitting accurate descriptions of the schools led by each principal.
PEIMS also contains detailed annual information on teacher and administrator experience, salary, education, class size, grade, population served, and subject.
Importantly, this database can be merged with information on student achievement by school, grade, and year.
Our analysis therefore focuses on principals in elementary and middle schools, for whom it is possible to develop performance measures. The personnel data combine time as a teacher and as an administrator into total experience, so it is not possible to measure tenure as a principal accurately for those who became a principal prior to the initial year of our data the —91 school year.
We therefore concentrate on the years from to Over this period, we are able to observe 7, individual principals and make use of 28, annual principal observations.ford exped ssv vin: 1fmjk1g58eef chevrolet tahoe vin: 1gnsk2e01br The impact of socioeconomic status on educational outcomes and reducing slow academic skills development, low literacy, chronic stress and increased dropout rates.
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